Global Perspective of Biodiversity, Climate Change and Food Security
Global Perspective of Biodiversity, Climate Change and Food Security

Global Perspective of Biodiversity, Climate Change and Food Security

Human activity as much as natural elements are to blame for climate change (CC). Biodiversity, agricultural output, and food security are all expressively altered. The majority of endemic and narrowly adapted species are in danger of extinction. Concerns regarding the extinction of species are merited because they provide sustenance for all life forms and primary health care for more than 60–80 % of humans worldwide. Despite the fact that the impact of climate change on biodiversity and agricultural security has been acknowledged, relatively little is known about the global scope of the problem. Moreover, climate change has an impact on food security, especially in communities and regions that rely on rain-fed agriculture. Plants and crops have limits beyond which their growth and yield are compromised. In reaction to a changing future climate globally, it is expected that biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and food security would change significantly. Therefore, one of the anticipated effects of CC is the transfer of plants from the environment to which they are acclimated to higher altitudes and latitudes.

Condition of global biodiversity

Intensively managed ecosystems (agriculture, plantation forestry, and aquaculture) and non-intensively managed ecosystems (pasture lands, native forests, freshwater ecosystems, and oceans) support biodiversity. In addition to solar radiation, carbon dioxide level, ambient temperature, and the availability of water and inorganic nutrients, the existence of life is primarily dependent on the evaporative capacity of the atmosphere. However, these crucial parameters, upon which life depends, are affected by both natural and human-caused factors. Consequently, the swiftly expanding human population and economies over the past century have increased the demand for biodiversity resources.

Methods for keeping species alive in a changing climate


Future feeding alternatives and challenges in the context of climate change and biodiversity loss

Food, novel medications, and genetic variety that may have evolutionary significance for pest resistance, soil fertility, and pollination are all unavoidable benefits of biodiversity. Consequently, the provision of biodiversity services is necessary for food production. Such strategies can rely on an expanded agricultural base combined with various habitats.

  1. As a result, another alternative is to use agrobiodiversity to lessen environmental and climatic unpredictability. Thus, restoring degraded land, using the clean development mechanism (CDM), safeguarding watersheds and coastal regions, preserving mangroves and coastal fisheries, and protecting biodiversity may all have a beneficial impact.
  2. Another choice is sustainable forest management (SFM), which aims to protect and improve the economic, social, and environmental assets of forests for the benefit of both current and future generations.
  3. CC mitigation is taking steps to cut back on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, store carbon, and make decisions that will result in low emissions in the long run.
  4. Imposing taxes on emissions is another well-known mitigation measure for lowering the usage of fossil fuels.
  5. Application of biotechnology, land restoration, and water resource management are further viable adaption strategies for CC.

Therefore, ensuring food security in the face of a changing climate and the loss of biodiversity is difficult to do absent reforms in policy, land use, and investment. Applying CC mitigation policy measures, reducing food waste, and reversing land degradation might all have a good impact. One of the main adaptation and mitigation measures for the worldwide effects of CC is the re-discovery and release of high-yielding, biotic and abiotic stress resistant and appropriate varieties across agro-ecologies.

                                                                                                        Dr. Swapnila Roy

                                                                                                         HOD, SOBAS


August 28, 2023

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